Theorization of De-territorialized Environmental Risk Assemblage under the Context of East Asian Industrial Land Process- A Scalar Perspective of “Built Environment in the Urban” and “Earth Force in the Region”

Associate Prof. Shiuh-Shen. Chien

Environmental risks (ERs) have been an important research topic in many industrializing and industrialized countries. Existing literature tends to focus on territorialized ERs, whose extent of impacts is geographically related to risk existed sites. Indeed, de-territorialized ERs, a phenomenon that ERs would take place distantly from sites of their industrial production via certain physical transporting mediators, has not yet investigated as much as the territorialized ERs. Thus, this project will give insight into the de-territorialized ERs.


In terms of mediators, the de-territorialized ER is categorized into at least two types – (1) the man-made infrastructure in urban area, ERs like oil or petrochemical explosions occur due to the damage or leakage of underground tunnels during the transporting process; and (2) the strength of earth system at the regional scale, such as the pollution particles of PM 2.5 were transported from far-away factories via wind in the troposphere or boundary layer. These two de-territorialized ERs can be comparatively discussed by three analytic dimensions: spatial (heights in the air or depths underground) and temporal (from seasonal change like monsoon to second-like explosion) dynamics; differences and commonalities of mediators in the formation and transformation; and, social-spatial process in both “built environment in the urban” and “the strength of earth in regional” contexts. Therefore, de-territorialized ERs cannot be analyzed only by risk materials themselves. Instead, de-territorialized ERs are better understood as ER assemblage consisting of risk materials, risk transport mediators, and fragmented governance of these risk materials and mediators.

The theoretical framework of ER assemblages provides us an opportunity to further comprehend the different political and social environmental regimes under varied circumstances and mechanisms, the intermediaries of transmission, and the various institutional advantage and limitation to cope with de-territorialized ERs. We will examine this framework by referring two cases from Taiwan and China that have tackled similar de-territorialized ERs in recent years. While Taiwan possessed a more accountable local government toward local people, China has a strong central state to coordinate administrations and capitals in a larger-scale.

理論化工業發展脈絡下的去領地環境風險裝配:「都市-人造」與「區域-自然」兩種尺度觀點

工業土地帶來經濟發展,也衍伸許多環境風險難題(environmental risks, ERs)。過去的環境風險類型中大多是以領地化為主 (territorialized ERs),也就是風險產生區與受創區有一個空間距離的正相關。但本計畫與之不同,反是關注於去領地化類型 (de-territorialized ERs),就是環境風險是以一種發生地點與受創地區呈現蛙跳與遠距的空間關係。

我們從經驗出發,區分兩種類型的去領地化環境風險,一為透過人造基礎設施在都市地區的風險,如石化物質在地下管溝傳送後產生遠距爆炸 (台灣高雄仁武大社石化園區,引來數公里外的三多氣爆);另一為透過地球系統力量在區域地區的風險,如空氣汙染隨大氣層傳送後產生遠距落塵 (彰濱工業區空氣汙染,造成數十公里外的埔里 PM 2.5 過量)。

這樣的經驗資料,有助於我們進一步從時空動態 (地下或空中等空間軸度,或季節風向或分秒爆炸等時間面向),生成特性 (地球自營風力或網絡化人造設施等)、尺度關係 (「區域- 自然」系統,或「都市-人造」系統等) 等三面向,來分析這兩種環境風險構成與演變,進而提擬一個所謂動態化去領地化風險裝配 (de-territorialized ER assemblage) 理論框架,這包括風險物質 (石化物質 v.s PM 2.5),傳輸中介管道,及因應不同物質與中介質之物質性與能動性所衍伸的治理破碎化運作。

這樣立基於台灣經驗資料的去領地化風險裝配理論框架,若進一步進行跨國經驗比較 (例如台灣對比中國),將有助於我們細緻觀察不同的政治與社會制度下環境風險體制 (environmental risk regimes) 如何運作,這包括不同的「中央- 地方關係」,以及「國家- 社會/ 資本關係」得以如何對去領地化風險進行有效治理。